By John Reader
Drawing on decades of African adventure, John Reader has written a booklet of startling grandeur and scope that recreates the good landscape of African heritage, from the primeval cataclysms that shaped the continent to the political upheavals dealing with a lot of the continent this day. Reader tells the extreme tale of humankind's variation to the ferocious stumbling blocks of wooded area, river and desolate tract, and to the specter of debilitating parasites, micro organism and viruses unequalled in different places on this planet. He additionally indicates how the world's richest collection of animals and vegetation has helped - or hindered - human growth in Africa.
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Additional resources for Africa: A Biography of the Continent
Japan soon started to express her desire for expansion by fortifying the recently conquered German possessions and by presenting China with a series of demands in 1915 (the twenty-one demands) that tried to extend further Japanese influence over China. ) Gold Nigeria (B) kon Hong a (I) Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (B) Kamina Coast (B) Shanghai A HIN Caroline Islands (German) Cameroon Togoland Duala Singapore da an Ug (B) British East Africa Italian Somaliland ST Belgian Congo EA French Equatorial Africa H TC U D Rio Muni (Spanish) German IE D Tanga S Africa Troop Convoys to Europe Abercorn Angola (P) Swakopmund Nauru (German) German Solomon Islands IN East Tsumeb Northern Rhodesia (B) Equator Bismarck (German) New Archipelago G u (Ge i rma nea n) A Ger ttacks on man Col A onie LI s RA Attacks on German Colonies ST AU Windhoek Rhodesia (B) Tsumeb Walvis Bay (British) Walvis Bay German South- Nyasaland (B) Bechuanaland (B) an Germ oa Sam Portuguese East Africa (Mozambique) West Africa Lüderitz Lüderitz NEW ZEALAND Orange River Keetmanshoop Garub South Africa (B) 0 1000 Km Key: 0 1000 Km German Colonies 170° 26 Map 13: The Allied Blockade of Germany lockade by land or sea of an enemy’s overseas trade was a long-established weapon of war.
But the main theatre of war for Italy was the short stretch of relatively flat land by the coast along the Isonzo river and the hilly land just to the north where it was possible to mass large armies. So, from June 1915 to September 1917, Italy’s supreme commander, Luigi Cadorna, fought eleven Isonzo battles, to capture the Austro-Hungarian port of Trieste before pushing on to Vienna. He poured the bulk of Italy’s men and matériel into the attritional Isonzo battles, all fought in roughly the same area, which exceeded the western front in terms of high casualties for minimal ground gained.
Gorizia fell (9 August) but when the offensive ended on 17 August the total gain was only 5 kilometres (3 miles). The capture of Gorizia prompted Cadorna to launch three more offensives east of the town in late 1916 (seventh, eighth and ninth Isonzo battles), none of which breached the Austro-Hungarian defences. For the tenth battle in 1917, Cadorna outnumbered the Austro-Hungarians three-to-one and, with a long preliminary bombardment, he managed to push to within 15 kilometres (9 miles) of Trieste by June 1917.
Africa: A Biography of the Continent by John Reader