By Holt Rinehart & Winston
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Additional resources for Animals Grade 6 (Holt Science & Technology Modules 2005)
13. For corresponding summaries see also [50,126,337,356], etc. A new nomenclature considering the atomic structure was proposed by the IUPAC13. Contrary to Siegbahn’s notation based on the intensities of the observed X-ray transitions the IUPAC notation is based on the designation of the energy levels andderstand form the transition by declaring the sub13 K ˛1 K ˛2 L˛1 M ˛1 | l| = 1 | j| = 0, 1 n = 0. 2 1 shells involved in the transition . For instance this means: Siegbahn’s notation IUPAC notation K - L3 K - L2 L3 - M5 M5 - N7 etc.
The Einstein A-coefficient (spontaneous emission) is of importance for all ﬂuorescent processes and the B-coefficient (induced emission) plays an important role for laser devices, because here we have induced emission. Line intensity and lifetime of excited states. In classical understanding the lifetime is those time periods needed for the atom, as a radiating dipole, to emit 48 2 Physical Fundamentals its excitation energy. From classical considerations it follows that the mean lifetime becomes shorter if the radiation amplitude and therefore the line intensity increase.
In Fig. If an electron is ionized from a subshell considering actual selection rules the vacancy is filled by electrons of outer subshells. Such an electron transition from an outer to an inner subshell leads, in accordance with nonradiative electron transitions, to the emission of a characteristic X-ray quantum. Alternative to the representation shown in Fig. 4 the energy levels of an atom can be given as presented in Fig. 5 in the so-called Grotrian diagram. e. the emission of an X-ray quantum then corresponds to an electron transition from a higher level to a lower one.
Animals Grade 6 (Holt Science & Technology Modules 2005) by Holt Rinehart & Winston